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Kashmiri Castes and Surnames

In his book "The Valley of Kashmir", Walter R. Lawrence depicts the beginning of Kashmiri Krams (surnames) as an intriguing sensation. In spite of the fact that the Krams have stopped to have any distinction or refinement, yet to ask whether the different Krams sprang from a Brahman, Kshatriya or Vaisya beginning. It is assumed by numerous that Muslims of the Pandit, Koul, Butt, Yettu, Rishi, Mantu and Ganai Krams are relatives of Brahmans. He further expresses that he attempted to follow in the gimmicks of the men of those krams however found that the Muslims of the Pandit Kram is precisely like different Muslims.

Zat or Kram:

A wide range of surnames in Kashmir are called either Kram or Zat. Dr. Madan expounding on the Zat says, the critical inquiry is the thing that does Zat indicate? Obviously it indicates conception, as does the remarkable word Jati somewhere else among the Hindus.

The Kashmiris utilize the expression Zat as a part of a more extensive sense, then again, to mean pith or innate nature. Terrible Zat is a term of ill-use and is utilized to censure a fiendishness natured individual as opposed to allude to low conception, which would appear to be the essential importance in the first Arabic-Persian. Also, Kashmiri Muslims allude to God as Zat-i-Pak, the one whose nature is unadulterated.

Zat is additionally utilized as a part of arranging types of dairy cattle or mixed bags of spiritless items, for example, paddy or timber. Gould notice a comparative utilization of the term Jati among villagers in eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Eglar is cited to report from the Punjab in Pakistan "When a full grown individual is gotten some information about his Zat, which implies rank and personality, he is destined to reply: 'what character can a person have? The special case who has a personality is the Almighty. I am a woodworker (or Zamindar, or stylist, or either) by occupation'".

Educator Gascoigne states that an intriguing utilization of the saying Zat seems to have been made in Mughal organization, a mansabdar, or respectable, was concurred a twofold rank. The Zat rank, supposed, obviously offered distinguishment to a singular's economic wellbeing, and his pay was dead set regarding it.

At the point when utilized as a piece of a man's name, Zat has the narrower importance of either conception (e.g., Syed, Shaikh and so on.) or inherited occupation (e.g., Khar, Navid, Gurr and so on.). It doesn't, notwithstanding, fundamentally show a man's real wellspring of employment. A group of any word related classification may have enough land not to need to practice their conventional calling, or, a specific individual may decide to enter another occupation. These certainties are found out by asking about Kar, a general term for work or occupation, or about Kasb, i.e, aptitudes.

Barth has recorded an indistinguishable utilization of these two terms among the Swat Pathans,. who, then again, utilize quom for rank status." It might be noted, however that individuals once in a while move starting with one gifted or authority occupation then onto the next, however agribusiness is regarded to be interested in all. Agriculturists are called Zamindar (Greesie) and non-agriculturists artisan gatherings are assigned Naangar actually those looking for bread."

Change of Surname:

Both Hassan and Lawrence and also other conspicuous essayists have looked down upon the procedure of changing ones Kram name. It's scornful tone gets to be more perceptible when they allude to the purported low standing parched base individuals embracing the supposed fair and magnified surnames. To quote Lawrence the men of low occupations are arrogating high sounding names.Thus recently years Dums (or Doombs) of Kashmir have relentlessly expected the Kram of Ganai to the disturbance of unique Ganais. To aggravate matters, the planters and butchers have likewise taken an extravagant to the Kram name Ganai. The boatmen of Kashmir have seized on the name of Dar as a patent or respectability, and Muslims of different Krams are currently irritating the Ganais and the Dars by attesting that they were initially Dums and boatmen.

The stylists of the valley don't point so high as the butchers and boatmen, and have satisfied themselves with appropriating the Kram of Thakur; yet there is nothing to anticipate Abdullah, the Dum, calling himself Abdullah Pandit on the off chance that he picks.

Rundown of Surnames:

1. Aram:

Some of their predecessors had been utilized to gather the duties from the vegetable producers and in the proper way of time the expression Aram turned into their epithet. Rajatarangini has utilized the expression Aramak for them.

2. Kral:

The Potters of kashmirs are called Kral. There are numerous areas in Kashmir known by the expression Kral viz. Kralpur, Kralgund in Kupwara area. In the city of Srinagar we have two Mohallas known as Kral Khud and Kralyar. The Pandits utilized for gathering assessments from "Krals" (potters) were nicknamed as Kral.

3. Gooru:

A milkman and a cowherd is called Goor in Kashmiri. Pandits did neither of these occupations, then again, certain Pandits were utilized as Patwaris to keep the records of their dairy cattle heads and gather the Government charges from them. Over the span of time their unique family names got to be dark and were known as Gooru.

4. Bakaya:

An officer of the rank of a Tehsildar was selected in the time of Sikhs and Pathans to understand the extraordinary expenses from the individuals. His descendents were nicknamed as Bakaya.

5. Manwati:

Manwati used to be a standard weight in Kashmir. It was equivalent to over two diviners. Government used to require a duty of one Manwati of rice on the occupants and an authority utilized to gather this assessment was known to individuals by the name of Manwat. His descendents likewise lost their unique family name and the moniker Manwati turned into an irremovable connection to their names.

6. Guzarwan:

A Guzarwan was an authority incharge of an extract check-post on the edges of a town. Each article going to the town from outside was to be checked and charge at an already altered rate to be figured it out. A Guzarwan was likewise to check the carrying and unapproved section of articles to the town. An authority utilized, in this way to perform this obligation got to be renowned by the name of Guzarwan. His youngsters, whatever their calling may have been, were likewise known by this name.

7. Bakshi:

It is a typical Punjabi surname. A Pandit utilized as an Assistant to a Punjabi officer, having Bakshi his surname, was otherwise called Bakshi. Mr. Fauq says a Pandit utilized as a representative of the Army was known as Bakshi or Mir Bakshi.

8. Jawansher:

Jawansher was a popular Afghan Governor of Kashmir. He had a Pandit as his Peshkar (Assistant) who got to be celebrated by the name of his expert. Jawansher is the epithet of numerous families bearing diverse surnames.

9. Munshi:

It is a typical surname among numerous phonetic gatherings of India. K. M. Munshi was a Gujrati and a celebrated Indologist. Munshis exist in all the Hindi-talking regions of India. Munshi implies an agent. Mr. Fauq says that a certain Pandit of Tikoo family was utilized as a Munshi amid the guideline of Sikhs or Pathans. He was the most insightful and proficient Munshi Kashmir had ever seen. Therefore,he got to be celebrated by his expert name and his youngsters were additionally known by this name.

10. Misri:

A Pandit utilized in administration of a merchant who had originated from the Egypt (Misr) was known by the handle Misri. One more likelihood is that some Pandit had gone to Egypt and when he returned he was known by the name of the nation he had gone by. Some depict it to be the handle of those Pandits whose precursor was utilized by a broker managing in Michari Kandi.

11. Digoo:

Individuals with the Digoo surname have a place predominatly to the hanji group of kashmir however they don't affirm the conventional occupations of hanjis. The expression "Digoo" most presumably has etymological relevence with english period.

Digoos are placed all through the valley of kashmir however for the most part gathered in and around the srinagar and abutting areas furthermore along the catchment range of the renowned stream jehlum.

Despite the fact that their genealogical starting points stay debated, digoos, in the same way as other hanji positions, are said to be of kshatriya plummet.

Today Digoos are occupied with a wide range of exchange practices. In spite of the fact that they are non-farming individuals, digoos are straightforwardly & in a roundabout way connected with different united rural areas. Exchange and business is their principle word related movement.

12. Turki:

A Pandit was utilized as an agent by a Turk dealer and was nicknamed as Turki. Fauq notice Pandit Tab Ram Turki to have been a celebrated artist who composed 'Jangnama of Sikhs.' A "Turki" companion has been re-nicknamed as 'Istambol'. Maybe, in light of the fact that, Istanbul is the capital of Turkey.

13. Kuli:

'Tarkuli Khan' and 'Noor Kulikhan' were two Afghan boss amid the principle of "Durani" lords. Pandits utilized by them as Government workers were known as Kuli.

14. Wazir:

The Pandits utilized in the administration of Wazirs of Kashmir amid Pathan and Mughal principle got to be slowly well known by the name of Wazir.

15. Ambardar:

Ambar implies a colossal store. Land income was being acknowledged in kind, rather than in real money, before. Commonly certain individuals were utilized to care for these stores of toll rice.They were called Ambardar and their later eras likewise were recognized by this name.

16. Chakbast:

"Chak" in Kashmiri is the name given to an extensive parcel. Chakdari was a typical gimmick of Kashmir's agrarian framework. It was canceled after the end of Dogra administration in 1948. Prior to the death of Agrarian laws extensive parcels would be given to persuasive zamindars as the "Chaks" on an ostensible rent. In this manner, the officers depended with the occupation of keeping a consistent record of these area property were known as "Chakbast." They were otherwise called Kanoongo.

17. Bhan:

It is an old Kashmiri handle offered, maybe, to the individuals who sold the utensils. Bhan is the name of the Sun additionally however this name does not legitimize itself to be a wellspring of a moniker or a family name. There is a territory, known as, 'Bana Mohalla', in Srinagar.

18. Langar or Langroo:

Some of their precursor must have been the director of a Government ki
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