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The Geology of the domains of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh has been contemplated in some point of interest by R. Lydekkar. He has partitioned the region into three diverse structural Zones:

1. The Panjal

2. The Zanskar

3. The Tertiary Groups

These three Geological divisions structure the premise of the four physical divisions of the State.

The Panjal structures the Outer plain, the Outer Hills and the Middle Mountains. The Zankar incorporates the entire of the eastern district from Spiti and Lahol (32.170N. Scope) to the grandiose Karakoram mountains in the north. The Tertiary Groups incorporate the valley of Kashmir and other waterway Valleys.

The oval valley of Kashmir is longitudinal. It is around 1700 meters above ocean level. There is a high mass of mountains round the valley. These ascent to a tallness of 5500 meters above ocean level. The main outlet of the valley is Baramulla where the Jehlum streams out through a tight crevasse. The whole seepage of the valley of Kashmir and its encompassing zones has just this outlet. In the north, Kashmir has numerous volcanic rock arrangements. These are for the most part stratified and a few thousand meters thick. There are numerous layers of sedimentary rocks which are found in Liddar valley, Baramulla area and Banihal Verinag segment of the Pir Panjal reach.

Limestones and shells are regular. The rock layers have numerous fossils. Close Yarkand to the amazing north, shells have been discovered demonstrating that the district was under ocean in the topographical past.

To the south and west of the valley there are karewa arrangements which are lake-laid muds and shales. These are lacustine stores and show up like level hills on the edge of high mountains. Beneath these karewas is spread the alluvium of the Jehlum. The most noteworthy karewa is close to the Pir Panjal. It is 3800 meters above ocean level and more than 2100 meters over the level of the Jhelum.

Dispersion of Rocks and Minerals

The mountains encompassing the diverse valleys of the State of Jammu and Kashmir have fluctuated mineral riches. The principal study of minerals riches in the State was made by a prestigious geologist Mr. Middlemiss in 1924 in a joint effort with the Government of Jammu and Kashmir, yet a concentrated mineral overview was taken up in the year 1956 when orderly examination started, as a result of which mineral misuse in the state was sorted out and created.

1. Lignite: It is a second rate nature of coal which is found in the valley of Kashmir at Nichahama, Baramulla, Handwara, Chowkibal, Ferozepur nullah, Nagbal, Tangmarg, Raithan, Badgam tehsil, Laligang and Lolab valley. Lignite is a dark chestnut coal that is middle of the road in coalification in the middle of peat and sub-bituminous coal which has a calorific esteem under 8300 BTU/lb, on a soggy mineral free premise. As indicated by the report of the Geological Survey of India, there are lignite coal stores of around 50 million tons in the valley. Boring operations were begun first in the Nicahhom - Chowkibal zone where the stores were evaluated at 4.5 million tons to a profundity of 40 meters. Lignite is utilized as a fuel as a part of the valley of Kashmir.

2. Limestone: All the three districts of the State i.e. Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh have stores of diverse ages and grades of Limestone. The Limestone of Kashmir is of great and is utilized as a part of the production of concrete at Wuyan and Khrew. These stores exist in Anantnag, Achhabal, Dooru, Verinag, Biru, Sonamarg, Ajas, Wuyan, Khrew and Lodoo. It is likewise utilized as building stone and mortar.

3. Copper minerals are found at Aishmuqam, Shubbar region (Anantnag), Lashtil slope goads (Baramulla), Handwara, Sumbal, Kangan and Lolab valley in the territory of Kashmir.

4. Iron-mineral stores happen in Sharda (Karnah tehsil), Khrew, Haral (Handwara), Uri tehsil, Garez (Sopore tehsil) and Lolab valley in Kashmir.

5. Gypsum: It is utilized for making mortar of paris and chalk sticks. The Kashmir region has gypsum stores at Lasipora, Baramulla, Anantnag, Liddipora and Kathia Nullah (Uri). There is aggregate store of around 4 million tons of gypsum in the State.

6. Ochre: It is utilized as a part of paints and varnishes and so forth. There are broad stores of ochre in Nur Khawn, Ratasar and Jhaggi in the Uri tehsil. Around 4 lakh huge amounts of ochre has been found in the state in this way.

7. Zinc and Nickel are found at Buniyar (Baramulla).

8. Fuller's Earth is utilized as a part of the production of nation cleanser and for filling paper. It is found in Rampur close Baramulla.

9. Slate stone is found in plenitude in the valley of Kashmir.

10. Graphite is utilized as a part of the production of lead pencils and is found in Bararipora, Uri, Karnah, Magam, Piran in the region of Kashmir.

11. Sulfur is found in Pagga valley in Ladakh. In spring water, it is found at Anantnag and Khrew. The evaluated stores of sulfur in the state are 2,00,000 tons.

12. Marble: Large stores of marble have been found at Drugmalla, Zirahama, Oura and Trehgam in Kupwara locale of Kashmir. This is light cocoa to grimy dim in shading. This is being utilized ordinarily as a part of structures nowadays.

Ladakh Valley 

Ladakh is limited by two of the world's mightiest mountain extends, the Great Himalayas and the Karakoram and lies transversely to the Ladakh range and the Zanskar range. In geographical terms, it is a youthful area, shaped just a couple of million years back by the clasping and collapsing of the world's hull as the Indian sub-landmass pushed with compelling power against the relentless mass of Asia. Today, a high-height desert, Ladakh was once secured by a broad lake framework. The remainders of such a lake framework still exists in the southeast levels of Rupshu and Chushul where there are waste bowls, for example, Tso-moriri, Tsokar, and most amazing of all, Pangong-tso. Notwithstanding the precipitation by some stray rainstorm mists that traverse to the territory, the primary wellspring of water remains the winter snowfall.

Drass, Zanskar and the Suru Valley to the north of Himalayas get substantial snow in winter sustaining the glacial masses that soften in summers to structure the streams utilized for watering the fields. For whatever remains of the district, the snow on the tops is basically the main wellspring of water.

Ladakh lies at elevations extending from around 9,000 feet at Kargil to 25,170 feet at Saser Kangri in the Karakoram. Its solidified scene is extraordinary while its acceptable skies with glaring sun are welcome. Falling stars are noticeable regularly in the zone while hush and peacefulness rule the range. There are wizened countenances and ruddy cheeks, and the mythical beasts and Zen beautify each other human inhabitation, making Ladakh a truly place to visit. Otherwise called 'The Last Shangrila', "Moonscape" and 'Little Tibet', the area is loaded with amazements.

Drass Valley - A charming valley framed by the Drass River that has its inception in the Machoi glacial mass close to the popular Zozila Pass. Waterway Shigar streaming in from the north depletes a bordering piece of the Drass Valley. In summers, because of the dissolving of snow, the volume of the waterway rises extensively. It meets the Suru River close Kharul, a short separation far from Kargil.The zone is rough with an intermittent green patch structured by willow and forests. The short summer season in the Drass Valley starts in May, when the snows start to soften. Occupied by Brokpas who likely relocated to this tract from Gilgit a few centuries prior, the boss control of the locals is developing primarily grain and other coarse cereals, as there is an absence of watering system offices in numerous parts of Drass. The dirt is poor and inefficient and the farming generation is additionally poor. Thus, nourishment grains must be foreign made from the Kashmir Valley while the lack of fuel makes it be gotten from over the Zozila Pass.

Suru Valley - The normal stature of the Suru valley is 3,000 m. In the winters beginning from mid-November and normally proceeding till May, all parts of the valley is secured with a thick layer of snow. Framed by the catchments of the Suru River, that ascents from the Panzella ice sheet and joins the Indus River at Nurla and the Dras River at Kharul, the general geography of the valley is as rough and uneven as the greater part of Ladakh. On the other hand, it is generally more prolific and reaches out from the Panzella icy mass to south of Kargil town, where the Suru River converges with the Botkul River ascending from the Botkul ice sheet. Farming is the boss control of the valley individuals, which are honored with a moderately more summer, which starts in May. The fundamental products of the district are wheat, grain and millets alongside the vegetables, for example, turnip, radish, peas and dark peas. Grapes, apricots and melons are delivered in genuinely expansive amounts at Darchik and Garkoon along the lower course of the Indus through Ladakh that discover a prepared market in Kargil. Alcohol is produced using grapes.

Nubra Valley - Yellow and pink wild roses spread Nubra amid right on time summers till August when a rug of wild lavender enwraps it. A generally hotter valley in Ladakh, it yields better products and organic products, consequently, gaining the epithet of the Ldumra or the plantation of Ladakh.

Diskit, one of the bigger towns in the area, is spotted with apricot estates and is eminent for lodging the 350 year-old Diskit Gompa, which is the most seasoned and the biggest cloister in the Nubra Valley. The street in the middle of Diskit and the really little Hunder Village winds through a lovely extend of sand rises. In Hunder, one can see the twofold bumped camels as one goes to visit the Hunder Gompa having some old frescos and a statue of Buddha. This religious community is additionally the best place in the town to catch a perspective of the setting sun.

Salt Lake Valley - One of the most stretched out open ranges in Rupshu, it has a length of around 20 km and a greatest width of around 7 km. The normal tallness of the locale is 5,000 m and can be drawn nearer from Leh over the Tanglang La pass. The principle settlement of the valley is Thuggi while the two lakes here are - the crisp water Panluk Lake and the salt-water Tsokar Lake, whic
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